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Water Withdrawal - Municipal water withdrawal

(10^9 m3/yr)

Annual quantity of water withdrawn primarily for the direct use by the population. It includes renewable freshwater resources as well as potential over-abstraction of renewable groundwater or withdrawal of fossil groundwater and the potential use of desalinated water or treated wastewater. It is usually computed as the total water withdrawn by the public distribution network. It can include that part of the industries, which is connected to the municipal network. The ratio between the net consumption and the water withdrawn can vary from 5 to 15% in urban areas and from 10 to 50% in rural areas.